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Amategeko n’amabwiriza

Kwinjira muri uru rubuga nkoranyamakuru no kurukoresha bigaragaza ko wemeye amategeko n’amabwiriza rusange akurikira. Amategeko n’amabwiriza akurikira agena uburyo bwo gukoresha urubuga nkoranyamakuru ku mitunganyirize n’imikoreshereze y’ubutaka mu Rwanda:

  • Ku bantu bakoresha urubuga batariyandikishije: Ukoresha urubuga ubwe agomba kumenya Amategeko n’Amabwiriza mbere yo kurukoresha. Kwemeza ko yasomye Amategeko n’Amabwiriza ni gihamya y’uko ukoresha urubuga ayumva kandi ayemeye.
  • Ku bantu bakoresha urubuga bariyandikishije: Abakoresha urubuga bariyandikishije bagomba kurukoresha mu buryo bwubahiriza ibipimo n’amabwiriza nk’uko biteganywa n’ishami rishinzwe Ubutaka no Gutunganya Amakarita n’ibikubiye muri aya Mabwiriza n’Amategeko.

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Iby’ingenzi abakoresha amakuru na serivisi basabwa kuba bujuje

  1. Umuntu wese ashobora kwinjira muri serivisi zivugwa mu nyandiko igaragaza amakuru aboneka ku rubuga ku buntu;
  2. Ukoresha urubuga ntiyemerewe gukoresha amakuru yarwo mu bintu bigamije indonke, ubucuruzi cyangwa mu nyungu ze bwite;
  3. Ukoresha urubuga ntiyemerewe gutubura, kugurisha, gusangiza abandi cyangwa kwamamaza no gutanga amakuru ari ku rubuga, uko yakabaye cyangwa igice cyayo, kuyahereza abandi cyangwa kuyashyira kuri mudasobwa no ku zindi mbuga cyangwa mu bundi buryo bukoreshwa mu gutangaza amakuru.

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Ibanga ry’amakuru y’umuntu

Igihe abakoresha urubuga barwinjiyemo, amwe mu makuru arebana na bo nk’amapaji basuye, amakuru bafashe cyangwa barebye n’igihe bakoresheje, cyangwa andi makuru ateye gutyo, bibikwa kuri seriveri y’urubuga. Ibi ntibigaragaza abakoresheje urubuga kandi aya makuru azakoreshwa imbere hagamijwe gusesengura uburyo urubuga rusurwa gusa. Niba abakoresha urubuga batanze amakuru abaranga nk’izina, aho babarizwa cyangwa andi makuru mu nyandiko zibikwa ku rubuga, aya makuru azakoreshwa mu bijyanye n’ibarurishamibare gusa kandi ntazatangazwa cyangwa ngo ashyirwe aho abasura urubuga bose bashobora kuyabona.

RNRA/ishami rishinzwe Ubutaka no Gutunganya Amakarita ntigurisha cyangwa ngo ikodeshe amazina y’abakoresha urubuga rwayo, aho babarizwa, email zabo cyangwa se andi makuru yabo ku giti cyabo.

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Imikoreshereze ya aderesi IP

Aderesi IP ni nimero mudasobwa yawe ihita ihabwa iyo urimo gukoresha Interineti. Seriveri ndetse na ‘mudasobwa nini’ zigenewe amapaji y’imbuga zihita zibona mudasobwa yawe zifashishije nimero IP yayo. Uru rubuga rushobora kwifashisha za aderesi IP mu ibarurishamibare. Cyakora, aderesi IP ntaho zihurizwa n’umwirondoro w’umuntu ku giti cye, bityo amazina y’abakoresha urubuga aguma kugirwa ibanga.

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Imikoreshereze y’amakuru ugenerwa n’urubuga (Cookies)

Amakuru ugenerwa n’urubuga ni amakuru urubuga nkoranyambaga rwohereza ku mashini y’umuntu kugira ngo ayabike: amagambo banga ntabwo abikwa muri imikoreshereze y’amakuru ugenerwa n’urubuga. Imikoreshereze y’amakuru ugenerwa n’urubuga zishobora gufasha kumenya amapaji asurwa cyane bityo RNRA/Ishami rishinzwe ubutaka n’itegurwa ry’amakarita ikaba yamenya niba urubuga rwayo rugeza ku barukoresha ibyo bakeneye. Niba utifuza kohererezwa cookies, cyangwa se niba wifuza ko imashini yawe ikumenyesha ko wohererejwe cookies, ushobora gufunga unyuze ahagenewe guhagarika mikoreshereze y’amakuru ugenerwa n’urubuga. Kanda ahanditse ‘Ubufasha’ kugira ngo umenye ukuntu ushobora guhindura ibyo wifuza kuri imikoreshereze y’amakuru ugenerwa n’urubuga. Cyakora, ugomba kumenya ko nuramuka uhagaritse cookies zose utazashobora kubyaza umusaruro ibintu byose biboneka kuri uru rubuga. RNRA/Ishami rishinzwe ubutaka n’itegurwa ry’amakarita ntikoresha ibikubiye mu mwirondoro w’umuntu ku giti cye binyuze muri cookies haba mu kwamamaza cyangwa gucuruza, kimwe n’uko ayo makuru atazigera ashyirwa ku karubanda.

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Ibisabwa ku rwego rwa tekiniki ngo winjire kandi ukoreshe amakuru na serivisi

Kugira ngo ubashe gukoresha neza amakuru y’urubuga, usabwa ibintu bikurikira:

  1. Kuba ufite murandasi;
  2. Igikoresho kigufasha kugera kuri Interineti, harimo porogaramu ituma winjira mu makuru y’urubuga (web browser), yemera inyandiko za cookies hamwe na Java Script;
  3. Kugira konti ya email (niba ukoresha urubuga nk’uwiyandikishije)

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Ibyo ukoresha urubuga ategetswe

Mu gihe yinjiye cyangwa afata amakuru ari ku rubuga, ukoresha urubuga ntiyemerewe gukoresha nabi cyangwa gucokoza serivisi zarwo. Ibintu bikurikira birabujijwe mu gihe ukoresha amakuru y’urubuga:

  1. Gukoresha amavirusi, porogaramu za mudasobwa (bots, worms) cyangwa izindi kode za mudasobwa na porogaramu birogoya, byangiza cyangwa bigabanya imikorere y’urubuga n’imiterere yarwo mu bya tekiniki, cyangwa se bigatuma abantu bashobora gukoresha cyangwa kwinjira muri sisiteme yarwo mu buryo butemewe; no
  2. Gukoresha kode za mudasobwa, inyandiko cyangwa porogaramu hagamijwe ko gukoresha serivisi zitangwa n’urubuga bizajya byikora ubwabyo.

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Uburenganzira bukomye

Amakuru ari ku rubuga ni amakuru rusange agenewe rubanda. RNRA/Ishami rishinzwe Ubutaka no Gutunganya Amakarita riha abakoresha urubuga uruhushya rwo kurusura, gufata no gutubura amakuru, amashusho, inyandiko cyangwa ibindi bintu igihe cyose bagaragaje abo ari bo. RNRA/Ishami rishinzwe Ubutaka no Gutunganya Amakarita ntabwo ritanga uburenganzira bwo kugurisha cyangwa kongera gutanga amakuru, inyandiko, amashusho cyangwa ibindi bintu bivuye kuri uru rubuga cyangwa gukusanya no gukora ibikorwa bibyawe n’amakuru avuye kuri uru rubuga. Ibintu byose bitangajwe kuri uru rubuga bikingiwe n’uburenganzira bukomye kandi ni umutungo ucungwa na RNRA/Ishami rishinzwe Ubutaka no Gutunganya Amakarita cyangwa se uwatanze ayo makuru.

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Ukutaryozwa kwa USAID

Twashoboye gushyiraho uru rubuga twifashishije inkunga y’abaturage b’Amerika yanyujijwe mu Kigo cy’Abanyamerika gishinzwe iterambere mpuzamahanga (USAID). Ibikubiye muri uru rubuga bireba Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe umutungo kamere mu Rwanda/MINIRENA bityo bikaba ntaho bihuriye n’ibitekerezo bya USAID cyangwa ibya Guverinoma ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika.

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